为什么魔鬼有这样的吸引力? 数百个电视节目, 书籍和电影都以魔鬼为主角, 并不总是作为一个恶棍, 但是作为一个迷人的, 诱惑和危险的性格. 达伦Oldridge, 早期现代学教授 澳门官方游戏官网的历史 的作者 《澳门官方游戏官网》 (牛津大学出版社:2012), offers us an insight into our obsession with the Devil
I have studied the history of the Christian Devil for twenty years, 和 in this time one question has often struck me: why do people seem to like him? Or, to present the problem in less colourful terms: why does the idea of the Devil have such widespread appeal? 魔鬼在某种程度上看起来很性感, 说, 新教改革或英国内战却没有. I could spend another twenty years mulling on why this is the case, 但我将在这个博客中尝试一些简短的回答.
首先让我澄清一下. In what follows I am treating the Christian Devil as a figure in the history of religious thought. This is because - to paraphrase the pioneer of historical scholarship in this field, Jeffrey Burton Russell - all we can really know about Satan is what people have believed about him. This is as true for someone (like Russell) who believes in the Devil as it is for someone (like me) who does not.
那澳门官方游戏官网为什么喜欢魔鬼呢? This is a problem because the historical record is clear on one point: since the time of the earliest Christian communities, 人们一直认为他是个十足的恶人. He not only hates everything that is good, but also wants to destroy it. 就像恶魔米菲斯托菲尔在歌德的诗里说的那样 浮士德博士他会很高兴地抹去澳门官方游戏官网所爱的一切. 澳门官方游戏官网能从这样一个角色身上找到什么吸引人的地方呢?
让我提出四个一般的答案. 首先，魔鬼是一个非常多样化的角色. In his behaviour 和 appearance he is far more versatile than his angelic counterparts. 这是因为恶灵, 不像好的, can tell lies as well as the truth; they can also disguise themselves in multiple forms. 这让它们变得复杂而有趣, 让艺术家和作家的想象力发挥主导作用. 如果你怀疑这个说法, look at some images of the Devil in western art 和 compare them to representations of angels.
The second reason for the Devil’s appeal is his role as the ultimate leader of the opposition. Whatever anyone in the western Christian tradition has held to be "good", he has been against it. Like his fondness for disguise, this has made him remarkably flexible. 16世纪的天主教徒和新教徒, 例如, believed that Satan was the invisible mastermind behind their opponents
在宗教信仰强烈的时期, such accusations were treated by their targets as insults 和 lies. (Indeed, they were sometimes cited as evidence of Satan's dominion over their accusers!) But the slow retreat of religion from public life has allowed the Devil to emerge as an attractive symbol of rebellion, 同时保持他的弹性. He can appeal to rebels of all kinds against authorities 和 orthodoxies of any flavour.
My third answer is based on another traditional attribute of the Devil. He is not only the enemy of goodness but also the punisher of sinners. 在这个想法的流行版本中, Satan has frequently appeared as the scourge of obviously antisocial wrongdoers: murderers, 小偷, 还有各种各样的恶棍. 在英国通俗文学中, 例如, 撒旦经常出现，揭露和惩罚罪犯. In this role it is easy to imagine him - mistakenly in the view of orthodox demonology - as the defender of the innocent.
The fourth reason why I think the Devil is oddly alluring derives from another of his traditional roles: as a spirit of temptation. Recent scholarship has shown that Satan's activity as a tempter became especially prominent during the Protestant Reformation of the sixteenth 和 seventeenth centuries. In this capacity he pursued a twofold strategy: he attacked the mind with "false religion" 和 the body with immoderate desires. 这两种都被认为是诱惑和致命的.
随后, Satan became a metaphor for the enticing 和 destructive tendencies to which men 和 women are prey. 随着所谓的“假宗教”威胁的减弱, 肉的明显危险仍然存在. 作为这些诱惑冲动的最高象征, 魔鬼还保留着他那致命的吸引力. After all, what is the point of temptation if it is not, well, tempting?
有, 然后, good reasons why the figure of Satan exerts a peculiar fascination, 甚至在某些方面看起来很有吸引力. 这些都根植于他性格的复杂历史之中. One consequence of this fascination may be to draw future historians to study the place of the Devil in western culture, a project that in itself contains an undeniable intellectual appeal.
达伦Oldridge教授 is a specialist in sixteenth 和 seventeenth-century religious history 和 lectures on the 英航历史(荣誉) 澳门官方游戏官网的课程. 奥尔德里奇教授是澳门官方游戏官网的一员 早期现代研究小组 他的著作包括 奇怪的历史 (劳特利奇出版社:2017年第2版) 都铎和斯图亚特英格兰的超自然力量 (劳特利奇:2016) 《澳门官方游戏官网》 (牛津大学出版社:2012).
All views expressed in this blog are the Academic’s own 和 do not represent the views, policies or opinions of the 澳门官方游戏官网 or any of its partners.